Linux7(CentOS,RHEL,OEL)和Oracle RAC环境系列–4-target(图形界面和字符界面)

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标题:Linux7(CentOS,RHEL,OEL)和Oracle RAC环境系列–4-target(图形界面和字符界面)

作者:Lunar©版权所有[文章允许转载,但必须以链接方式注明源地址,否则追究法律责任.]

systemd可以创建不同的状态,状态提供了灵活的机制来设置启动时的配置项。这些状态是由多个unit文件组成的,状态又叫做启动目标(target)。
unit文件可以控制服务、设备、套接字和挂载点,这些文件存放在下面的两个目录下:
/etc/systemd/system/
/usr/lib/systemd/system/

其中/etc/systemd/system/的优先级更高。
如果需要创建自己的unit,可以修改第一个目录中的文件来进行自定义配置,而第二个目录中的文件是package安装时保存的备份。
比如在Linux7.2(CentOS,RHEL,OEL)12.1.0.2和12.2beta版本的Oracle GI程序就需要自己手工创建ohasd的服务(这是bug),后续文章陆续会讲解到。
目录/etc/systemd/system/目录中只有很少的配置文件,在这里面配置的服务优先级高于配置在/usr/lib/systemd/system/中的服务:

[root@lunar system]# ll /etc/systemd/system/|grep ohasd
-rw-r--r--  1 root root  361 Oct  9 12:29 oracle-ohasd.service
[root@lunar system]# 
[root@lunar system]# ll /etc/systemd/system/
total 16
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   30 Oct  8 07:17 basic.target.wants
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   30 Oct  7 23:08 bluetooth.target.wants
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root   41 Oct  7 23:08 dbus-org.bluez.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/bluetooth.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root   44 Oct  7 23:10 dbus-org.freedesktop.ModemManager1.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/ModemManager.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root   46 Oct  7 23:04 dbus-org.freedesktop.NetworkManager.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/NetworkManager.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root   57 Oct  7 23:04 dbus-org.freedesktop.nm-dispatcher.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/NetworkManager-dispatcher.service
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root   41 Oct  8 16:51 default.target -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   85 Oct  7 23:02 default.target.wants
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root   35 Oct  7 23:08 display-manager.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/gdm.service
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   31 Oct  7 23:02 getty.target.wants
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   90 Oct  9 12:29 graphical.target.wants
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 Oct  9 12:29 multi-user.target.wants
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root   38 Oct  7 23:04 mysql.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/mysqld.service
-rw-r--r--  1 root root  361 Oct  9 12:29 oracle-ohasd.service
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   25 Oct  7 23:05 printer.target.wants
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 Oct  8 07:32 sockets.target.wants
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   35 Oct  7 23:10 spice-vdagentd.target.wants
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 Oct  8 22:19 sysinit.target.wants
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   83 Oct  7 23:05 system-update.target.wants
[root@lunar system]# 

基本target中,只有微码服务:

[root@lunar1 ~]# ll /etc/systemd/system/basic.target.wants
总用量 0
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 41 1月  16 03:00 microcode.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/microcode.service
[root@lunar1 ~]# 

sysinit的目标:

[root@lunar1 ~]# ll /etc/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants
总用量 0
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 49 1月  16 02:57 dmraid-activation.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/dmraid-activation.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 37 1月  16 02:53 iscsi.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/iscsi.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 43 1月  16 02:54 lvm2-lvmetad.socket -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/lvm2-lvmetad.socket
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 44 1月  16 02:54 lvm2-lvmpolld.socket -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/lvm2-lvmpolld.socket
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 44 1月  16 02:54 lvm2-monitor.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/lvm2-monitor.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 42 1月  16 02:56 multipathd.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/multipathd.service
[root@lunar1 ~]# 

缺省目标:

[root@lunar1 ~]# ll /etc/systemd/system/default.target.wants
总用量 0
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 57 1月  16 02:52 systemd-readahead-collect.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/systemd-readahead-collect.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 56 1月  16 02:52 systemd-readahead-replay.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/systemd-readahead-replay.service
[root@lunar1 ~]# 

多用户字符界面的目标(runlevel 3):

[root@lunar1 ~]# ll /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/
总用量 0
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 41 1月  16 02:54 abrt-ccpp.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/abrt-ccpp.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 37 1月  16 02:53 abrtd.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/abrtd.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 41 1月  16 02:53 abrt-oops.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/abrt-oops.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 43 1月  16 02:54 abrt-vmcore.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/abrt-vmcore.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 41 1月  16 02:53 abrt-xorg.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/abrt-xorg.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 35 1月  16 03:01 atd.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/atd.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 39 1月  16 02:56 chronyd.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/chronyd.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 37 1月  16 02:53 crond.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/crond.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 42 1月  16 02:55 hypervkvpd.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/hypervkvpd.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 42 1月  16 02:55 hypervvssd.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/hypervvssd.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 42 1月  16 03:01 irqbalance.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/irqbalance.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 37 1月  16 02:54 kdump.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/kdump.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 35 1月  16 02:56 ksm.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/ksm.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 40 1月  16 02:56 ksmtuned.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/ksmtuned.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 46 1月  16 02:54 libstoragemgmt.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/libstoragemgmt.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 40 1月  16 02:54 libvirtd.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/libvirtd.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 41 1月  16 02:53 mdmonitor.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/mdmonitor.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 44 1月  16 03:02 ModemManager.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/ModemManager.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 46 1月  16 02:55 NetworkManager.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/NetworkManager.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 41 1月  16 02:56 nfs-client.target -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/nfs-client.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 39 1月  16 02:55 postfix.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/postfix.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 40 1月  16 02:52 remote-fs.target -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/remote-fs.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 36 1月  16 03:01 rngd.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/rngd.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 39 1月  16 02:56 rsyslog.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/rsyslog.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 36 1月  16 03:01 sshd.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/sshd.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 39 1月  16 02:54 sysstat.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/sysstat.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 40 1月  16 02:53 vmtoolsd.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/vmtoolsd.service
[root@lunar1 ~]# 

而/usr/lib/systemd/system下面定义的unit就太多了:

[root@lunar1 ~]# ls -lrt /usr/lib/systemd/system/|wc -l
404
[root@lunar1 ~]# ls -lrt /usr/lib/systemd/system|grep -v grep|grep graphical
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     469 3月   3 2014 firstboot-graphical.service
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     558 11月 20 12:49 graphical.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      16 1月  16 02:52 default.target -> graphical.target
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root      49 1月  16 02:52 graphical.target.wants
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      16 1月  16 02:52 runlevel5.target -> graphical.target
[root@lunar1 ~]# ls -lrt /usr/lib/systemd/system|grep -v grep|grep multi
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     492 11月 20 12:49 multi-user.target
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     597 11月 20 23:34 multipathd.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      17 1月  16 02:52 runlevel2.target -> multi-user.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      17 1月  16 02:52 runlevel3.target -> multi-user.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      17 1月  16 02:52 runlevel4.target -> multi-user.target
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root    4096 1月  16 02:53 multi-user.target.wants
[root@lunar1 ~]# ls -lrt /usr/lib/systemd/system|grep -v grep|grep runlevel
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     761 11月 20 12:49 systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      17 1月  16 02:52 runlevel2.target -> multi-user.target
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root      49 1月  16 02:52 runlevel1.target.wants
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      13 1月  16 02:52 runlevel1.target -> rescue.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      15 1月  16 02:52 runlevel0.target -> poweroff.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      17 1月  16 02:52 runlevel3.target -> multi-user.target
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root      49 1月  16 02:52 runlevel2.target.wants
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root      49 1月  16 02:52 runlevel4.target.wants
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      17 1月  16 02:52 runlevel4.target -> multi-user.target
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root      49 1月  16 02:52 runlevel3.target.wants
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      13 1月  16 02:52 runlevel6.target -> reboot.target
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root      49 1月  16 02:52 runlevel5.target.wants
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      16 1月  16 02:52 runlevel5.target -> graphical.target
[root@lunar1 ~]# 
[root@lunar1 ~]# ls -lrt /usr/lib/systemd/system|grep -v grep|grep NetworkManager
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     284 11月 21 00:55 NetworkManager-wait-online.service
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     419 11月 21 00:55 NetworkManager.service
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     353 11月 21 00:55 NetworkManager-dispatcher.service
[root@lunar1 ~]# ls -lrt /usr/lib/systemd/system|grep -v grep|grep network
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     585 11月 20 12:49 systemd-networkd.socket
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     480 11月 20 12:49 network.target
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     461 11月 20 12:49 network-pre.target
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     464 11月 20 12:49 network-online.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      24 1月  16 02:52 dbus-org.freedesktop.network1.service -> systemd-networkd.service
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root      47 1月  16 02:55 network-online.target.wants
[root@lunar1 ~]# ls -lrt /usr/lib/systemd/system|grep -v grep|grep rsyslog
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     288 11月 20 19:34 rsyslog.service
[root@lunar1 ~]# ls -lrt /usr/lib/systemd/system|grep -v grep|grep udev
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     751 11月 20 12:49 systemd-udev-trigger.service
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     827 11月 20 12:49 systemd-udev-settle.service
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     829 11月 20 12:49 systemd-udevd.service
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     570 11月 20 12:49 systemd-udevd-kernel.socket
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     578 11月 20 12:49 systemd-udevd-control.socket
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     668 11月 20 12:49 initrd-udevadm-cleanup-db.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      56 1月  16 02:52 dracut-pre-udev.service -> ../../dracut/modules.d/98systemd/dracut-pre-udev.service
[root@lunar1 ~]# 

从Linux7开始,不使用inittab作为启动配置文件,其内容仅仅是个说明:

[root@lunar1 ~]# cat /etc/inittab
# inittab is no longer used when using systemd.
#
# ADDING CONFIGURATION HERE WILL HAVE NO EFFECT ON YOUR SYSTEM.
#
# Ctrl-Alt-Delete is handled by /usr/lib/systemd/system/ctrl-alt-del.target
#
# systemd uses 'targets' instead of runlevels. By default, there are two main targets:
#
# multi-user.target: analogous to runlevel 3
# graphical.target: analogous to runlevel 5
#
# To view current default target, run:
# systemctl get-default
#
# To set a default target, run:
# systemctl set-default TARGET.target
#
[root@lunar1 ~]# 

从上面的说明不难看出,systemd不使用inittab作为配置文件,因此在这里添加的服务将不会生效
systemd使用’targets’代替了runlevels,我们常用的两个targets(启动到图形界面和启动到字符界面):

# multi-user.target: analogous to runlevel 3
# graphical.target: analogous to runlevel 5

其中,multi-user.target类似于以前的runlevel 3,也就是字符界面的多用户模式
graphical.target就是以前的runlevel 5,即图形界面模式。
可以使用systemctl get-default来查看缺省的target,也可以使用systemctl set-default来设置缺省的target。
.
查看当前正处在哪个target中:

[root@lunar1 ~]# systemctl list-units --type=target
UNIT                  LOAD   ACTIVE SUB    DESCRIPTION
basic.target          loaded active active Basic System
cryptsetup.target     loaded active active Encrypted Volumes
getty.target          loaded active active Login Prompts
local-fs-pre.target   loaded active active Local File Systems (Pre)
local-fs.target       loaded active active Local File Systems
multi-user.target     loaded active active Multi-User System
network-online.target loaded active active Network is Online
network.target        loaded active active Network
nfs-client.target     loaded active active NFS client services
paths.target          loaded active active Paths
remote-fs-pre.target  loaded active active Remote File Systems (Pre)
remote-fs.target      loaded active active Remote File Systems
slices.target         loaded active active Slices
sockets.target        loaded active active Sockets
swap.target           loaded active active Swap
sysinit.target        loaded active active System Initialization
timers.target         loaded active active Timers

LOAD   = Reflects whether the unit definition was properly loaded.
ACTIVE = The high-level unit activation state, i.e. generalization of SUB.
SUB    = The low-level unit activation state, values depend on unit type.

17 loaded units listed. Pass --all to see loaded but inactive units, too.
To show all installed unit files use 'systemctl list-unit-files'.
[root@lunar1 ~]# 

查看默认target:

[root@lunar1 ~]# systemctl get-default
multi-user.target
[root@lunar1 ~]# 

也就是当前运行在多用户字符集面的模式。
查看当前所有的运行级别的定义:

[root@lunar1 ~]# ll /usr/lib/systemd/system/runlevel*
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 15 1月  16 02:52 /usr/lib/systemd/system/runlevel0.target -> poweroff.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 13 1月  16 02:52 /usr/lib/systemd/system/runlevel1.target -> rescue.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 17 1月  16 02:52 /usr/lib/systemd/system/runlevel2.target -> multi-user.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 17 1月  16 02:52 /usr/lib/systemd/system/runlevel3.target -> multi-user.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 17 1月  16 02:52 /usr/lib/systemd/system/runlevel4.target -> multi-user.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 16 1月  16 02:52 /usr/lib/systemd/system/runlevel5.target -> graphical.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 13 1月  16 02:52 /usr/lib/systemd/system/runlevel6.target -> reboot.target

/usr/lib/systemd/system/runlevel1.target.wants:
总用量 0
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 39 1月  16 02:52 systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service -> ../systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service

/usr/lib/systemd/system/runlevel2.target.wants:
总用量 0
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 39 1月  16 02:52 systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service -> ../systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service

/usr/lib/systemd/system/runlevel3.target.wants:
总用量 0
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 39 1月  16 02:52 systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service -> ../systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service

/usr/lib/systemd/system/runlevel4.target.wants:
总用量 0
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 39 1月  16 02:52 systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service -> ../systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service

/usr/lib/systemd/system/runlevel5.target.wants:
总用量 0
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 39 1月  16 02:52 systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service -> ../systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service
[root@lunar1 ~]# 

这里我们看到了熟悉的 运行级别的身影:

runlevel0.target -> poweroff.target	---关机
runlevel1.target -> rescue.target	----营救模式
runlevel2.target -> multi-user.target	
runlevel3.target -> multi-user.target	----多用户的字符界面
runlevel4.target -> multi-user.target
runlevel5.target -> graphical.target	----图形界面
runlevel6.target -> reboot.target	----reboot主机

查看当前的正处在哪个target中:

[root@lunar system]# systemctl list-units --type=target
UNIT                 LOAD   ACTIVE SUB    DESCRIPTION
basic.target         loaded active active Basic System
cryptsetup.target    loaded active active Encrypted Volumes
getty.target         loaded active active Login Prompts
local-fs-pre.target  loaded active active Local File Systems (Pre)
local-fs.target      loaded active active Local File Systems
multi-user.target    loaded active active Multi-User System
network.target       loaded active active Network
paths.target         loaded active active Paths
remote-fs-pre.target loaded active active Remote File Systems (Pre)
remote-fs.target     loaded active active Remote File Systems
slices.target        loaded active active Slices
sockets.target       loaded active active Sockets
swap.target          loaded active active Swap
sysinit.target       loaded active active System Initialization
timers.target        loaded active active Timers

LOAD   = Reflects whether the unit definition was properly loaded.
ACTIVE = The high-level unit activation state, i.e. generalization of SUB.
SUB    = The low-level unit activation state, values depend on unit type.

15 loaded units listed. Pass --all to see loaded but inactive units, too.
To show all installed unit files use 'systemctl list-unit-files'.
[root@lunar system]# 
[root@lunar system]# systemctl list-units --type=target|grep graphical
[root@lunar system]# 

可以看到当前处在runlevel的运行界别类似于以前的level 3 ,即字符界面启动的
我们切换到图形界面启动的运行级别(类似于以前的runlevel 5):

[root@lunar system]# systemctl isolate graphical.target
[root@lunar system]# systemctl list-units --type=target
UNIT                 LOAD   ACTIVE SUB    DESCRIPTION
basic.target         loaded active active Basic System
cryptsetup.target    loaded active active Encrypted Volumes
getty.target         loaded active active Login Prompts
graphical.target     loaded active active Graphical Interface
local-fs-pre.target  loaded active active Local File Systems (Pre)
local-fs.target      loaded active active Local File Systems
multi-user.target    loaded active active Multi-User System
network.target       loaded active active Network
paths.target         loaded active active Paths
remote-fs-pre.target loaded active active Remote File Systems (Pre)
remote-fs.target     loaded active active Remote File Systems
slices.target        loaded active active Slices
sockets.target       loaded active active Sockets
swap.target          loaded active active Swap
sysinit.target       loaded active active System Initialization
timers.target        loaded active active Timers

LOAD   = Reflects whether the unit definition was properly loaded.
ACTIVE = The high-level unit activation state, i.e. generalization of SUB.
SUB    = The low-level unit activation state, values depend on unit type.

16 loaded units listed. Pass --all to see loaded but inactive units, too.
To show all installed unit files use 'systemctl list-unit-files'.
[root@lunar system]# 
[root@lunar system]# systemctl list-units --type=target|grep graphical
graphical.target     loaded active active Graphical Interface
[root@lunar system]# 

这时候我们可以看到关键字:graphical.target

查看当前缺省的运行级别:

[root@lunar system]# systemctl get-default
multi-user.target
[root@lunar system]# 

查看unit名为ohasd.serviced的依赖关系:

[root@lunar system]# systemctl list-dependencies ohasd.service
ohasd.service
├─system.slice
└─basic.target
  ├─alsa-restore.service
  ├─alsa-state.service
  ├─microcode.service
  ├─rhel-autorelabel-mark.service
  ├─rhel-autorelabel.service
  ├─rhel-configure.service
  ├─rhel-dmesg.service
  ├─rhel-loadmodules.service
  ├─paths.target
  ├─slices.target
  │ ├─-.slice
  │ └─system.slice
  ├─sockets.target
  │ ├─cups.socket
  │ ├─dbus.socket
  │ ├─dm-event.socket
  │ ├─iscsid.socket
  │ ├─iscsiuio.socket
  │ ├─rpcbind.socket
  │ ├─systemd-initctl.socket
  │ ├─systemd-journald.socket
  │ ├─systemd-shutdownd.socket
  │ ├─systemd-udevd-control.socket
  │ └─systemd-udevd-kernel.socket
  ├─sysinit.target
  │ ├─dev-hugepages.mount
  │ ├─dev-mqueue.mount
  │ ├─dmraid-activation.service
  │ ├─iscsi.service
  │ ├─kmod-static-nodes.service
  │ ├─lvm2-lvmetad.socket
  │ ├─lvm2-monitor.service
  │ ├─plymouth-read-write.service
  │ ├─plymouth-start.service
  │ ├─proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.automount
  │ ├─sys-fs-fuse-connections.mount
  │ ├─sys-kernel-config.mount
  │ ├─sys-kernel-debug.mount
  │ ├─systemd-ask-password-console.path
  │ ├─systemd-binfmt.service
  │ ├─systemd-journal-flush.service
  │ ├─systemd-journald.service
  │ ├─systemd-modules-load.service
  │ ├─systemd-random-seed.service
  │ ├─systemd-sysctl.service
  │ ├─systemd-tmpfiles-setup-dev.service
  │ ├─systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service
  │ ├─systemd-udev-trigger.service
  │ ├─systemd-udevd.service
  │ ├─systemd-update-utmp.service
  │ ├─systemd-vconsole-setup.service
  │ ├─cryptsetup.target
  │ ├─local-fs.target
  │ │ ├─-.mount
  │ │ ├─boot.mount
  │ │ ├─rhel-import-state.service
  │ │ ├─rhel-readonly.service
  │ │ └─systemd-remount-fs.service
  │ └─swap.target
  │   ├─dev-disk-by\x2did-dm\x2dname\x2dol\x2dswap.swap
  │   ├─dev-disk-by\x2did-dm\x2duuid\x2dLVM\x2dwmmUMFgSImFgksKwxBbGxaioeKcqTyRQ88RtxS76T3TS3XEM247vheZm8SQ77Xgw.swap
  │   ├─dev-disk-by\x2duuid-1a736d5d\x2de52a\x2d430c\x2dbe02\x2dff81252749db.swap
  │   ├─dev-dm\x2d1.swap
  │   ├─dev-mapper-ol\x2dswap.swap
  │   ├─dev-mapper-ol\x2dswap.swap
  │   └─dev-ol-swap.swap
  └─timers.target
    └─systemd-tmpfiles-clean.timer

[root@lunar system]# 

Linux7(CentOS,RHEL,OEL)和Oracle RAC环境系列–1-简介
Linux7(CentOS,RHEL,OEL)和Oracle RAC环境系列-2-修改主机名和hostnamectl工具的使用
Linux7(CentOS,RHEL,OEL)和Oracle RAC环境系列–3-systemd(d.bin和ohasd守护进程)
Linux7(CentOS,RHEL,OEL)和Oracle RAC环境系列–4-target(图形界面和字符界面)
Linux7(CentOS,RHEL,OEL)和Oracle RAC环境系列–5-防火墙
Linux7(CentOS,RHEL,OEL)和Oracle RAC环境系列–6-开机自动启动或者禁用服务
Linux7(CentOS,RHEL,OEL)和Oracle RAC环境系列-7-网络管理之添加网
Linux7(CentOS,RHEL,OEL)和Oracle RAC环境系列-7-网络管理之修改IP地址
Linux7(CentOS,RHEL,OEL)和Oracle RAC环境系列-7-网络管理之修改网络接口名
Linux7(CentOS,RHEL,OEL)和Oracle RAC环境系列-8-在Linux7上安装11.2 RAC和12.1 RAC需要禁用哪些服务
Linux7(CentOS,RHEL,OEL)和Oracle RAC环境系列-9-Linux 7.2上的virbr0设备
Linux7(CentOS,RHEL,OEL)和Oracle RAC环境系列-10-ABRT-系统启动后自动检查和报告错误
Linux7(CentOS,RHEL,OEL)和Oracle RAC环境系列-11-配置VNC和常见问题处理

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