配置Cascade Standby

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标题:配置Cascade Standby

作者:Lunar©版权所有[文章允许转载,但必须以链接方式注明源地址,否则追究法律责任.]

环境介绍:
1,VM1: OEL5.8+Oracle 11.2.0.3,考虑到笔记本的性能不行,因此最初考虑的是这个VM兼顾了Physical Primary 和Casecade Standby的重任。数据库是文件系统
2,VM2: OEL5.10+11.2.0.4,数据库是ASM的环境(Oracle Restart),作为Physical Standby。

考虑到版本兼容的问题,下一篇我讲切换他们的角色;
1,让VM2做为Cascade Standby的角色(因为不同版本,不能使用正常的open,只能open upgrade,因此,如果作为Physical Standby的话,不能放倒Open read only上)。
2,让VM1上的2个11.2.0.3的库分别作为Primary和Physical standby角色

创建standby controlfile和pfile:

07:37:17 SYS@lunar>alter database create standby controlfile as '/tmp/lunar.stb.ctl';

Database altered.

Elapsed: 00:00:02.16
07:37:35 SYS@lunar>

07:45:46 SYS@lunar>create pfile='/tmp/lunarstb.pfile' from spfile;

File created.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.24
07:46:13 SYS@lunar>

创建需要的目录:

07:43:20 SYS@lunar>show parameter reco

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
control_file_record_keep_time        integer     7
db_recovery_file_dest                string      /stage/fast_recovery_area
db_recovery_file_dest_size           big integer 1190198K
db_unrecoverable_scn_tracking        boolean     TRUE
recovery_parallelism                 integer     0
07:43:27 SYS@lunar>
07:44:34 SYS@lunar>show parameter audit

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
audit_file_dest                      string      /u01/app/oracle/admin/lunar/ad
                                                 ump
audit_sys_operations                 boolean     FALSE
audit_syslog_level                   string
audit_trail                          string      NONE
07:44:38 SYS@lunar>

使用备份进行恢复:

[oracle@lunar trace]$ rman target /

Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sat Aug 2 07:43:12 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

connected to target database: LUNAR (DBID=2464578389)

RMAN> list backup summary;

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

List of Backups
===============
Key     TY LV S Device Type Completion Time #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
------- -- -- - ----------- --------------- ------- ------- ---------- ---
1       B  F  A DISK        17-JUL-14       1       1       NO         TAG20140717T211558
2       B  F  A DISK        17-JUL-14       1       1       YES        TAG20140717T211604
3       B  F  A DISK        17-JUL-14       1       1       YES        TAG20140717T211604
4       B  F  A DISK        17-JUL-14       1       1       YES        TAG20140717T211604
5       B  A  A DISK        17-JUL-14       1       1       YES        TAG20140717T211649
6       B  A  A DISK        17-JUL-14       1       1       YES        TAG20140717T211649
7       B  A  A DISK        17-JUL-14       1       1       YES        TAG20140717T211649

RMAN> list backup;


List of Backup Sets
===================


BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
1       Full    9.61M      DISK        00:00:04     17-JUL-14      
        BP Key: 1   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20140717T211558
        Piece Name: /stage/backup/PRIMA_CONTROL.bkp
  Standby Control File Included: Ckp SCN: 1178911      Ckp time: 17-JUL-14

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
2       Full    54.05M     DISK        00:00:32     17-JUL-14      
        BP Key: 2   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20140717T211604
        Piece Name: /stage/backup/full_0epdl9gl_1_1.rman
  List of Datafiles in backup set 2
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  2       Full 1178928    17-JUL-14 /stage/lunar/sysaux01.dbf
  3       Full 1178928    17-JUL-14 /stage/lunar/undotbs01.dbf
  5       Full 1178928    17-JUL-14 /stage/lunar/soe01.dbf

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
3       Full    58.25M     DISK        00:00:33     17-JUL-14      
        BP Key: 3   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20140717T211604
        Piece Name: /stage/backup/full_0fpdl9gl_1_1.rman
  List of Datafiles in backup set 3
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  1       Full 1178929    17-JUL-14 /stage/lunar/system01.dbf
  4       Full 1178929    17-JUL-14 /stage/lunar/users01.dbf
  6       Full 1178929    17-JUL-14 /stage/lunar/lunar01.dbf

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
4       Full    1.05M      DISK        00:00:03     17-JUL-14      
        BP Key: 4   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20140717T211604
        Piece Name: /stage/backup/full_0gpdl9ho_1_1.rman
  Control File Included: Ckp SCN: 1178948      Ckp time: 17-JUL-14

BS Key  Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
5       5.06M      DISK        00:00:02     17-JUL-14      
        BP Key: 5   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20140717T211649
        Piece Name: /stage/backup/arch_0hpdl9i1_1_1.rman

  List of Archived Logs in backup set 5
  Thrd Seq     Low SCN    Low Time  Next SCN   Next Time
  ---- ------- ---------- --------- ---------- ---------
  1    1       1069557    16-JUL-14 1080642    16-JUL-14
  1    2       1080642    16-JUL-14 1080645    16-JUL-14
  1    3       1080645    16-JUL-14 1080649    16-JUL-14
  1    4       1080649    16-JUL-14 1080680    16-JUL-14
  1    5       1080680    16-JUL-14 1080684    16-JUL-14

BS Key  Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
6       22.52M     DISK        00:00:06     17-JUL-14      
        BP Key: 6   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20140717T211649
        Piece Name: /stage/backup/arch_0ipdl9i1_1_1.rman

  List of Archived Logs in backup set 6
  Thrd Seq     Low SCN    Low Time  Next SCN   Next Time
  ---- ------- ---------- --------- ---------- ---------
  1    6       1080684    16-JUL-14 1113407    16-JUL-14
  1    7       1113407    16-JUL-14 1145484    17-JUL-14

BS Key  Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
7       10.74M     DISK        00:00:03     17-JUL-14      
        BP Key: 7   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20140717T211649
        Piece Name: /stage/backup/arch_0jpdl9i5_1_1.rman

  List of Archived Logs in backup set 7
  Thrd Seq     Low SCN    Low Time  Next SCN   Next Time
  ---- ------- ---------- --------- ---------- ---------
  1    8       1145484    17-JUL-14 1178967    17-JUL-14
  1    9       1178967    17-JUL-14 1178977    17-JUL-14

RMAN> 

使用screen在后台传输rman备份集:

[root@lunar ~]# screen -S lunar
[root@lunar ~]# su - oracle
[oracle@lunar ~]$ . lunar.env 
[oracle@lunar ~]$ env|grep ORA
ORACLE_SID=lunar
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.3/dbhome_1
[oracle@lunar ~]$ cd /stage
[oracle@lunar stage]$ cd backup
[oracle@lunar backup]$ ls
arch_0hpdl9i1_1_1.rman  arch_0jpdl9i5_1_1.rman  bk.sql                  full_0fpdl9gl_1_1.rman  pfile_lunar.ora
arch_0ipdl9i1_1_1.rman  bk.log                  full_0epdl9gl_1_1.rman  full_0gpdl9ho_1_1.rman  PRIMA_CONTROL.bkp
[oracle@lunar backup]$ ll
total 165412
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall  5302272 Jul 17 21:16 arch_0hpdl9i1_1_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 23611392 Jul 17 21:16 arch_0ipdl9i1_1_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 11265024 Jul 17 21:16 arch_0jpdl9i5_1_1.rman
-rw-r--r-- 1 oracle oinstall     5155 Jul 17 21:16 bk.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 oracle oinstall      405 Jul 17 21:15 bk.sql
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 56680448 Jul 17 21:16 full_0epdl9gl_1_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 61087744 Jul 17 21:16 full_0fpdl9gl_1_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall  1114112 Jul 17 21:16 full_0gpdl9ho_1_1.rman
-rw-r--r-- 1 oracle oinstall      624 Jul 17 21:32 pfile_lunar.ora
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 10092544 Jul 17 21:16 PRIMA_CONTROL.bkp
[oracle@lunar backup]$ scp * oracle@192.168.56.26:/stage/backup/
oracle@192.168.56.26's password: 

[detached]
[root@lunar ~]# screen -ls
There is a screen on:
        11012.lunar     (Detached)
1 Socket in /var/run/screen/S-root.

[root@lunar ~]# ps -ef|grep 11012
root     11012     1  0 08:10 ?        00:00:00 SCREEN -S lunar
root     11013 11012  0 08:10 pts/2    00:00:00 /bin/bash
root     11087 10627  0 08:14 pts/0    00:00:00 grep 11012
[root@lunar ~]# screen -r 11012
[oracle@lunar stage]$ cd backup
[oracle@lunar backup]$ ls
arch_0hpdl9i1_1_1.rman  arch_0jpdl9i5_1_1.rman  bk.sql                  full_0fpdl9gl_1_1.rman  pfile_lunar.ora
arch_0ipdl9i1_1_1.rman  bk.log                  full_0epdl9gl_1_1.rman  full_0gpdl9ho_1_1.rman  PRIMA_CONTROL.bkp
[oracle@lunar backup]$ ll
total 165412
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall  5302272 Jul 17 21:16 arch_0hpdl9i1_1_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 23611392 Jul 17 21:16 arch_0ipdl9i1_1_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 11265024 Jul 17 21:16 arch_0jpdl9i5_1_1.rman
-rw-r--r-- 1 oracle oinstall     5155 Jul 17 21:16 bk.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 oracle oinstall      405 Jul 17 21:15 bk.sql
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 56680448 Jul 17 21:16 full_0epdl9gl_1_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 61087744 Jul 17 21:16 full_0fpdl9gl_1_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall  1114112 Jul 17 21:16 full_0gpdl9ho_1_1.rman
-rw-r--r-- 1 oracle oinstall      624 Jul 17 21:32 pfile_lunar.ora
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 10092544 Jul 17 21:16 PRIMA_CONTROL.bkp
[oracle@lunar backup]$ scp * oracle@192.168.56.26:/stage/backup/
oracle@192.168.56.26's password:
arch_0hpdl9i1_1_1.rman                                                                                                               100% 5178KB   5.1MB/s   00:00
arch_0ipdl9i1_1_1.rman                                                                                                               100%   23MB  22.5MB/s   00:01
arch_0jpdl9i5_1_1.rman                                                                                                               100%   11MB  10.7MB/s   00:01
bk.log                                                                                                                               100% 5155     5.0KB/s   00:00
bk.sql                                                                                                                               100%  405     0.4KB/s   00:00
full_0epdl9gl_1_1.rman                                                                                                               100%   54MB  13.5MB/s   00:04
full_0fpdl9gl_1_1.rman                                                                                                               100%   58MB   4.2MB/s   00:14
full_0gpdl9ho_1_1.rman                                                                                                               100% 1088KB   1.1MB/s   00:00
pfile_lunar.ora                                                                                                                      100%  624     0.6KB/s   00:00
PRIMA_CONTROL.bkp                                                                                                                    100% 9856KB   4.8MB/s   00:02
[oracle@lunar backup]$ logout
[root@lunar ~]# 

安装cascade的screen(这个步骤跟本次操作没有关系,不过是临时遇到了,顺手做了一下):

[root@lunar ~]# cd /etc/yum.repos.d
[root@lunar yum.repos.d]# wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-el5.repo
--2014-08-02 16:36:47--  http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-el5.repo
Resolving public-yum.oracle.com... 198.172.88.104
Connecting to public-yum.oracle.com|198.172.88.104|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 4550 (4.4K) 1
Saving to: `public-yum-el5.repo.2'

100%[=============================================================================================================================>] 4,550       --.-K/s   in 0s      

2014-08-02 16:36:51 (80.1 MB/s) - `public-yum-el5.repo.2' saved [4550/4550]

[root@lunar yum.repos.d]# yum install screen*
Loaded plugins: rhnplugin, security
This system is not registered with ULN.
You can use up2date --register to register.
ULN support will be disabled.
el5_latest                                                                                                                                      | 1.4 kB     00:00     
ol5_UEK_latest                                                                                                                                  | 1.2 kB     00:00     
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package screen.x86_64 0:4.0.3-4.el5 set to be updated
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

=======================================================================================================================================================================
 Package                              Arch                                 Version                                      Repository                                Size
=======================================================================================================================================================================
Installing:
 screen                               x86_64                               4.0.3-4.el5                                  el5_latest                               571 k

Transaction Summary
=======================================================================================================================================================================
Install       1 Package(s)
Upgrade       0 Package(s)

Total download size: 571 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
screen-4.0.3-4.el5.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                   | 571 kB     00:03     
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Finished Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Installing     : screen                                                                                                                                          1/1 

Installed:
  screen.x86_64 0:4.0.3-4.el5                                                                                                                                          

Complete!
[root@lunar yum.repos.d]# 

scp oracle@192.168.56.66:/tmp/lunarstb.pfile .
scp oracle@192.168.56.66:/tmp/lunar.stb.ctl .

配置主库的参数:

[oracle@lunar backup]$ cat lunarstb.pfile
*.audit_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/admin/lunar/adump'
*.audit_trail='none'
*.compatible='11.2.0.3.0'
*.control_files='/stage/lunar/control01.ctl','/stage/lunar/control02.ctl'
*.db_block_size=8192
*.db_domain=''
*.db_name='lunar'
*.db_recovery_file_dest='/stage/fast_recovery_area'
*.db_recovery_file_dest_size=1218762752
*.deferred_segment_creation=FALSE
*.diagnostic_dest='/u01/app/oracle'
*.filesystemio_options='setall'
*.open_cursors=300
*.pga_aggregate_target=153092096
*.processes=150
*.remote_login_passwordfile='EXCLUSIVE'
*.sec_return_server_release_banner=FALSE
*.sga_target=629145600
*.undo_tablespace='UNDOTBS1'
*.db_unique_name='lunarp'
*.log_archive_config='DG_CONFIG=(lunarp,lunars,lunarc)'
*.fal_server='lunars'
*.fal_client='lunarp'
*.log_archive_dest_1='LOCATION=USE_DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST VALID_FOR=(ALL_LOGFILES,ALL_ROLES) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=lunarp'
*.log_archive_dest_2='SERVICE=lunars LGWR SYNC AFFIRM VALID_FOR=(ONLINE_LOGFILES,PRIMARY_ROLE) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=lunars'
*.log_archive_dest_3='SERVICE=lunarc LGWR SYNC AFFIRM VALID_FOR=(STANDBY_LOGFILES,STANDBY_ROLE) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=lunarc'
*.log_archive_dest_state_1='ENABLE'
*.log_archive_dest_state_2='ENABLE'
*.log_archive_dest_state_3='ENABLE'
*.log_file_name_convert='+DATA/lunars/onlinelog/','/stage/lunar/'
*.db_file_name_convert='+DATA/lunars/datafile/','/stage/lunar/'
*.standby_file_management=auto
*.service_names='lunar'

Physical Standby的参数文件:

*.db_unique_name='lunars'
*.log_archive_config='DG_CONFIG=(lunarp,lunars,lunarc)'
*.fal_server='lunarp'
*.fal_client='lunars'
*.log_archive_dest_1='LOCATION=USE_DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST VALID_FOR=(ALL_LOGFILES,ALL_ROLES) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=lunars'
*.log_archive_dest_2='SERVICE=lunarp LGWR SYNC AFFIRM VALID_FOR=(ONLINE_LOGFILES,PRIMARY_ROLE) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=lunarp'
*.log_archive_dest_3='SERVICE=lunarc LGWR SYNC AFFIRM VALID_FOR=(STANDBY_LOGFILES,STANDBY_ROLE) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=lunarc'
*.log_archive_dest_state_1='ENABLE'
*.log_archive_dest_state_2='ENABLE'
*.log_archive_dest_state_3='ENABLE'
*.log_file_name_convert='/stage/lunar/','+DATA'
*.db_file_name_convert='/stage/lunar/','+DATA'
*.standby_file_management=auto
*.DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST='+DATA'
*.DB_CREATE_ONLINE_LOG_DEST_1='+DATA'
*.control_files='+data/lunars/control01.ctl','+data/lunars/control02.ctl'
*.service_names='lunar'

Cascade Standby的参数:

*.db_unique_name='lunarc'
log_archive_config='DG_CONFIG=(lunarp,lunars,lunarc)'
*.fal_server='lunarp','lunars'
*.fal_client='lunarc'
*.log_archive_dest_1='LOCATION=USE_DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST VALID_FOR=(ALL_LOGFILES,ALL_ROLES) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=lunarc'
*.log_archive_dest_2='SERVICE=lunars LGWR SYNC AFFIRM VALID_FOR=(ONLINE_LOGFILES,PRIMARY_ROLE) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=lunars'
*.log_archive_dest_state_1='ENABLE'
*.log_archive_dest_state_2='ENABLE'
*.log_file_name_convert='/stage/lunar/','/stage/lunar/'
*.db_file_name_convert='/stage/lunar/','/stage/lunar/'
*.standby_file_management=auto
*.service_names='lunar'

其余的过程就简单了,跟普通的ADG没什么分别:
1,分别在physical standby和cascade standby上做恢复standby controlfile和restore database。
2,使用alter database recover managed standby database using current logfile disconnect from session;应用日志了。
3,添加standby redo log:
alter database add standby logfile group 4(‘+DATA’) size 50M;
alter database add standby logfile group 5(‘+DATA’) size 50M;
alter database add standby logfile group 6(‘+DATA’) size 50M;
alter database add standby logfile group 7(‘+DATA’) size 50M;

最终的同步信息:
配置完成后,主库信息:

18:30:03 SYS@lunarp>show parameter name

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
db_file_name_convert                 string      +DATA/lunars/, /stage/lunar/
db_name                              string      lunar
db_unique_name                       string      lunarp
global_names                         boolean     FALSE
instance_name                        string      lunarp
lock_name_space                      string
log_file_name_convert                string      +DATA/lunars/, /stage/lunar/
processor_group_name                 string
service_names                        string      lunar
18:30:14 SYS@lunarp>
18:30:14 SYS@lunarp>SELECT PROCESS, STATUS, THREAD#, SEQUENCE#, BLOCK#, BLOCKS FROM  V$MANAGED_STANDBY;

PROCESS   STATUS          THREAD#  SEQUENCE#     BLOCK#     BLOCKS
--------- ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
ARCH      CLOSING               1         32          1       1071
ARCH      CLOSING               1         29          1        476
ARCH      CLOSING               1          8      69633        405
ARCH      CLOSING               1         32          1       1071
LGWR      WRITING               1         33      42656          1

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01
18:31:19 SYS@lunarp>archive log list
Database log mode              Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Enabled
Archive destination            USE_DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
Oldest online log sequence     31
Next log sequence to archive   33
Current log sequence           33
18:32:34 SYS@lunarp>

Physical Standby的信息:

18:30:38 SYS@lunarc>show parameter name

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
db_file_name_convert                 string      /stage/lunar/, /tempdisk/lunar
                                                 c/
db_name                              string      lunar
db_unique_name                       string      lunarc
global_names                         boolean     FALSE
instance_name                        string      lunarc
lock_name_space                      string
log_file_name_convert                string      /stage/lunar/, /tempdisk/lunar
                                                 c/
processor_group_name                 string
service_names                        string      lunar
18:30:41 SYS@lunarc>
18:31:47 SYS@lunarc>SELECT PROCESS, STATUS, THREAD#, SEQUENCE#, BLOCK#, BLOCKS FROM  V$MANAGED_STANDBY;

PROCESS   STATUS          THREAD#  SEQUENCE#     BLOCK#     BLOCKS
--------- ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
ARCH      CLOSING               1         31       2048        646
ARCH      CLOSING               1         32          1       1071
ARCH      OPENING               1         10          0          0
ARCH      CONNECTED             0          0          0          0
MRP0      WAIT_FOR_LOG          1         33          0          0
RFS       IDLE                  0          0          0          0
RFS       IDLE                  0          0          0          0
RFS       IDLE                  0          0          0          0
RFS       IDLE                  0          0          0          0

9 rows selected.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00
18:31:48 SYS@lunarc>

Cascade Standby的信息:

SQL> show parameter name
NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
cell_offloadgroup_name               string
db_file_name_convert                 string      /stage/lunar/, +DATA/lunars/
db_name                              string      lunar
db_unique_name                       string      lunars
global_names                         boolean     FALSE
instance_name                        string      lunars
lock_name_space                      string
log_file_name_convert                string      /stage/lunar/, +DATA/lunars/
processor_group_name                 string
service_names                        string      lunar
SQL> SELECT PROCESS, STATUS, THREAD#, SEQUENCE#, BLOCK#, BLOCKS FROM  V$MANAGED_STANDBY;

PROCESS   STATUS          THREAD#  SEQUENCE#     BLOCK#     BLOCKS
--------- ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
ARCH      CLOSING               1         31          1       2693
ARCH      CLOSING               1         32          1       1071
ARCH      CONNECTED             0          0          0          0
ARCH      CLOSING               1         32          1       1071
RFS       IDLE                  0          0          0          0
RFS       IDLE                  0          0          0          0
RFS       IDLE                  1         33      42696          1

7 rows selected.

SQL> 

切换是很里灵活的,后续将任意切换

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