Exadata上的IOPS和MBPS

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标题:Exadata上的IOPS和MBPS

作者:Lunar©版权所有[文章允许转载,但必须以链接方式注明源地址,否则追究法律责任.]

关于IOPS和MPBS的概念网上可以有很多详细的解释和介绍。
.
IOPS (Input/OutputPer Second),,即每秒读写(I/O)操作的次数总和,多用于OLTP/数据库或者小IO/小文件等场合,衡量系统的随机访问的性能。
.
我们知道,磁盘完成一个I/O请求所花费时间就磁盘本身的因素来说,跟寻道时间、转数和数据传输都有关系。
也就是说, IOPS(每秒IO次数) = 1s/(寻道时间+旋转延迟+数据传输时间)
.
而实际应用中IOPS还受到很多其他因素的影响,比如存储配置和不同操作系统上的相关配置等等(读写比例,顺序和随机,工作线程数,队列深度……),因此对比测量磁盘IOPS时应该在相同的测试基准下进行。
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与之对应的是 MBPS ,另一个重要指标是数据吞吐量(Throughput),指单位时间内可以成功传输的数据数量。对于大量顺序读写的应用,如VOD(Video On Demand),则更关注吞吐量指标。

传统磁盘也就是我们常说的机械盘,如SAS, SATA磁盘等等,在Exadata的存储节点上每个cell配置了12块SAS盘或者SATA盘:
Exadata V1 存储节点上磁盘的选择: 300 GB串行连接SCSI (SAS) 磁盘 或者 1TB串行连接(SATA) 磁盘(3.5寸)
Exadata V2 存储节点上磁盘的选择: 600 GB串行连接SCSI (SAS) 磁盘 或者 2TB串行连接(SATA) 磁盘(3.5寸)
Exadata X2-2 存储节点上磁盘的选择: 600 GB 15,000 RPM 高性能SAS硬盘 或 2TB 7,200 RPM 高容量SAS硬盘(3.5寸)
Exadata X3-2 存储节点上磁盘的选择: 600 GB 15,000 RPM 高性能SAS硬盘 或 3TB 7,200 RPM 高容量SAS硬盘(3.5寸)
Exadata X4-2 存储节点上磁盘的选择: 1.2 TB 10,000 RPM 高性能SAS硬盘 或 4TB 7,200 RPM 高容量SAS硬盘(2.5寸)

关于Exadata上Database IOPS的介绍以前在 Maclean的网站上看到过一篇讲的很清楚的介绍,今天search了一下,没找到原文了,找到了一篇转载于这篇完整的:

http://storage.chinabyte.com/387/12533387.shtml

有兴趣看原文的可以联系他(liu.maclean@gmail.com), O(∩_∩)O哈哈~

我这里稍微补充一下,其实Exadata上测试IOPS的“calibrate force”命令,本质上也是调用了“orion”,下面记录某此客户现场的实测结果:


这里我们看到,在安装Exadata时有一步“RunCalibrate”(不同版本的步骤稍有不同),我这是X2-2 1/4 Rack Image 11.2.3.2.1,采用了HP磁盘(即,每个cell12块600 GB 15,000 RPM 高性能SAS硬盘),该步骤为Step 9。

该步骤本质上是在所有cell节点上执行 “calibrate force”操作(该操作是一个只读操作)。

[root@dm01db01 tmp]# tail -f STEP-9-20121217123712.log
INFO: Logging all actions in /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/tmp/STEP-9-20121217123712.log and traces in /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/tmp/STEP-9-20121217123712.trc
INFO: Loading configuration file /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/onecommand.params...
INFO: 2012-12-17 12:37:12
INFO: Step 9  RunCalibrate
INFO: checking nodes in /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/all_group...
SUCCESS: All nodes in /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/all_group are pingable and alive.
INFO: Going to run calibrate, will take 10 or so minutes...
INFO: Running /usr/local/bin/dcli -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group -l root cellcli -e calibrate force to calibrate cells...
SUCCESS: Ran /usr/local/bin/dcli -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group -l root cellcli -e calibrate force and it returned: RC=0
dm01cel01: Calibration will take a few minutes...
 dm01cel01: Aggregate random read throughput across all hard disk LUNs: 1962 MBPS
 dm01cel01: Aggregate random read throughput across all flash disk LUNs: 4184.04 MBPS
 dm01cel01: Aggregate random read IOs per second (IOPS) across all hard disk LUNs: 4832
 dm01cel01: Aggregate random read IOs per second (IOPS) across all flash disk LUNs: 146413
 dm01cel01: Controller read throughput: 1957.14 MBPS
 dm01cel01: Calibrating hard disks (read only) ...
 dm01cel01: LUN 0_0  on drive [20:0     ] random read throughput: 166.84 MBPS, and 394 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 0_1  on drive [20:1     ] random read throughput: 172.72 MBPS, and 406 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 0_10 on drive [20:10    ] random read throughput: 170.37 MBPS, and 412 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 0_11 on drive [20:11    ] random read throughput: 168.08 MBPS, and 404 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 0_2  on drive [20:2     ] random read throughput: 171.44 MBPS, and 413 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 0_3  on drive [20:3     ] random read throughput: 168.67 MBPS, and 420 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 0_4  on drive [20:4     ] random read throughput: 166.21 MBPS, and 419 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 0_5  on drive [20:5     ] random read throughput: 170.13 MBPS, and 414 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 0_6  on drive [20:6     ] random read throughput: 170.32 MBPS, and 416 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 0_7  on drive [20:7     ] random read throughput: 172.66 MBPS, and 402 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 0_8  on drive [20:8     ] random read throughput: 169.86 MBPS, and 419 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 0_9  on drive [20:9     ] random read throughput: 170.38 MBPS, and 417 IOPS
 dm01cel01: Calibrating flash disks (read only, note that writes will be significantly slower) ...
 dm01cel01: LUN 1_0  on drive [FLASH_1_0] random read throughput: 272.61 MBPS, and 19945 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 1_1  on drive [FLASH_1_1] random read throughput: 271.77 MBPS, and 19946 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 1_2  on drive [FLASH_1_2] random read throughput: 271.81 MBPS, and 19930 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 1_3  on drive [FLASH_1_3] random read throughput: 272.08 MBPS, and 19908 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 2_0  on drive [FLASH_2_0] random read throughput: 272.59 MBPS, and 20694 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 2_1  on drive [FLASH_2_1] random read throughput: 272.45 MBPS, and 20675 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 2_2  on drive [FLASH_2_2] random read throughput: 272.33 MBPS, and 20697 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 2_3  on drive [FLASH_2_3] random read throughput: 272.24 MBPS, and 20707 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 4_0  on drive [FLASH_4_0] random read throughput: 271.91 MBPS, and 19961 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 4_1  on drive [FLASH_4_1] random read throughput: 271.84 MBPS, and 19969 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 4_2  on drive [FLASH_4_2] random read throughput: 271.78 MBPS, and 19958 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 4_3  on drive [FLASH_4_3] random read throughput: 271.45 MBPS, and 19960 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 5_0  on drive [FLASH_5_0] random read throughput: 271.69 MBPS, and 19965 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 5_1  on drive [FLASH_5_1] random read throughput: 270.85 MBPS, and 19942 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 5_2  on drive [FLASH_5_2] random read throughput: 270.77 MBPS, and 19926 IOPS
 dm01cel01: LUN 5_3  on drive [FLASH_5_3] random read throughput: 271.17 MBPS, and 19907 IOPS
 dm01cel01: CALIBRATE results are within an acceptable range.
 dm01cel01: Calibration has finished.
.........

在执行“calibrate force”操作期间,我们使用top观察一下cell的资源使用情况:


top


可以看到实际上cell上启动了6个orion 进程。
这里我们看到每个cell的平均IOPS(Aggregate random read IOs per second)和平均MBPS(Aggregate random read throughput)都是大体一致的,即:

 .........

dm01cel01: Aggregate random read throughput across all hard disk LUNs: 1962 MBPS
 dm01cel01: Aggregate random read throughput across all flash disk LUNs: 4184.04 MBPS
 dm01cel01: Aggregate random read IOs per second (IOPS) across all hard disk LUNs: 4832
 dm01cel01: Aggregate random read IOs per second (IOPS) across all flash disk LUNs: 146413
 dm01cel01: Controller read throughput: 1957.14 MBPS

.........

dm01cel02: Calibration will take a few minutes...
 dm01cel02: Aggregate random read throughput across all hard disk LUNs: 1926 MBPS
 dm01cel02: Aggregate random read throughput across all flash disk LUNs: 4184.11 MBPS
 dm01cel02: Aggregate random read IOs per second (IOPS) across all hard disk LUNs: 4919
 dm01cel02: Aggregate random read IOs per second (IOPS) across all flash disk LUNs: 137525
 dm01cel02: Controller read throughput: 2014.53 MBPS

.........

 dm01cel03: Aggregate random read throughput across all hard disk LUNs: 1934 MBPS
 dm01cel03: Aggregate random read throughput across all flash disk LUNs: 4139.36 MBPS
 dm01cel03: Aggregate random read IOs per second (IOPS) across all hard disk LUNs: 4824
 dm01cel03: Aggregate random read IOs per second (IOPS) across all flash disk LUNs: 121355
 dm01cel03: Controller read throughput: 2000.5 MBPS
 dm01cel03: Calibrating hard disks (read only) ...

由此,我们可以推断下,如果是这款机器,满配的IOPS和MBPS是多少?
.
满配机器(14个cell)hard disk LUNs的MBPS推算: 1962*14个cell=27468
满配机器(14个cell)flash disk LUNs的MBPS推算: 4184*14个cell=58576
满配机器(14个cell)hard disk LUNs的IOPS推算: 4832*14个cell=67648
满配机器(14个cell)flash disk LUNs的IOPS推算:146413*14个cell=2049782
.
官方给出的满配的标准数据如下:
Aggregate random read throughput across all hard disk LUNs: 25GB MBPS
Aggregate random read throughput across all flash disk LUNs: 75 MBPS
Aggregate random read IOs per second (IOPS) across all hard disk LUNs: 50000
Aggregate random read IOs per second (IOPS) across all flash disk LUNs: 1500000
.
上述推断结果相比官方指标基本吻合,而且都比官方指标略高(只有flash disk LUNs的稍微偏低)。
最后还要强调一点,这里的数据仅仅适用于Exadata,Exadata是软件和硬件的完美结合
…………

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